The internet of things (IoT) is transforming the way we live and work by connecting billions of devices to the internet and enabling them to communicate with each other and with us. As the number of connected devices continues to grow, so does the need for reliable and secure networking technologies that can support these devices.
One such technology is Cellular IoT, or cellular internet of things. Cellular IoT refers to the use of Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) with cellular technology to connect IoT devices to the internet. It is characterized by its low power consumption, long range, and low data rate. This technology is becoming increasingly popular as it offers a number of benefits over other IoT connectivity options, and it is particularly useful for devices that need to be mobile or are located in areas where other connectivity options, such as Wi-Fi or Ethernet, are not available.
LPWAN is well-suited for applications that require a long-range connection and do not need to transmit large amounts of data. There are several different technologies that can be used to implement LPWAN, including Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) and LTE-M. Each of these technologies has its own unique features and is suitable for different types of IoT applications.
Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT)
Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) is a low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technology that is designed for use in IoT applications. It is a type of 4G and 5G cellular technology that uses a narrowband radio frequency to transmit data over long distances with low power consumption.
One of the main benefits of NB-IoT is its low power consumption, which makes it suitable for devices that need to run on battery power for extended periods of time. It is also well-suited for applications that require a long range connection, as it can transmit data over distances of up to 50 km in rural areas and up to 15 km in urban areas.
In addition to its low power consumption and long range, NB-IoT has several other features that make it attractive for IoT applications. It has a low data rate, which makes it suitable for applications that do not require a lot of data to be transmitted. It also has a low cost and is easy to implement, which makes it a cost-effective option for IoT projects.
LTE-M (LTE-MTC, or LTE for Machine Type Communications) is another cellular technology that is optimized for use in long-range, low-power and low-data rate IoT applications. LTE-M is based on the LTE standard, which means it is compatible with existing cellular infrastructure and can be easily integrated into existing networks.
There are a few key differences between LTE-M and Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT). Here are some of the main advantages of LTE-M over NB-IoT:
- Data rate: LTE-M has a higher data rate than NB-IoT, which makes it suitable for applications that require a moderate amount of data to be transmitted. With LTE-M, devices can react in milliseconds if required, enabling use cases where a fast response is needed which is relevant for the usability of human-machine interactions.
- Compatibility: LTE-M is based on the LTE standard, which means it is compatible with existing cellular infrastructure and can be easily integrated into existing networks. NB-IoT, on the other hand, requires the deployment of new infrastructure.
- Deployment: LTE-M can be deployed in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum, which gives it more flexibility than NB-IoT, which can only be deployed in licensed spectrum.
- Sustainability: LTE-M is prepared for voice technology and Voice over LTE. Updating the firmware of a fleet of devices over the air can be difficult with NB-IoT due to its low data rate.
NB-IoT or LTE-M?Overall, LTE-M is a good choice for IoT applications that require a moderate data rate, compatibility with existing networks, and flexibility in terms of deployment. It is a cost-effective solution that is well-suited for a wide range of IoT applications. NB-IoT supports dense clusters of low throughput devices with high latency tolerance. It optimizes network resource use, particularly spectrum, while providing a low-cost option and low-power consumption.
To determine the best option for your application, then look for current use cases of LPWAN technology. For example, patient monitoring devices will likely require real-time communication, making LTE-M the most suitable choice. However, applications such as pipeline monitoring may work with batch communication, making either NB-IoT or LTE-M a viable option. Smart city applications like waste management, where sensors report on the fullness of city dumpsters, could also use either technology due to the infrequent updates and small amount of data to report. In these cases, the choice can be based on regional availability or pricing.
Benefits of Cellular IoT
IoT devices are often small, low-power devices that are designed to be used for a specific purpose, such as collecting data from sensors or controlling devices remotely. They can be used in a variety of applications, including smart cities, industrial automation, and healthcare.
One of the main advantages of Cellular IoT is its wide coverage area. While other technologies, such as Wi-Fi and LoRaWAN, are limited to a few hundred meters or a few kilometers at most, cellular networks are available almost everywhere, can cover entire countries and even continents. This makes Cellular IoT ideal for applications that require a long-range connection, such as tracking the location of a vehicle or monitoring the status of an asset in remote or hard-to-reach locations.
Another benefit of Cellular IoT is its reliability. Cellular networks are designed to be robust and are able to handle a large number of connections simultaneously. This makes them less prone to interference and interruption than other technologies, such as Wi-Fi, which can be disrupted by other devices or physical obstacles. It also offers a higher level of security than other technologies, as cellular networks are protected by encryption and other security measures.
There are a number of different IoT devices that can be connected to cellular networks, including sensors, actuators, and smart devices. Sensors are used to collect data from the environment, such as temperature, humidity, and air quality. Actuators are used to control devices or systems, such as turning a valve on or off. Smart devices are devices that are connected to the internet and can be controlled remotely, such as smart thermostats and smart lighting.
There are several different ways that Cellular IoT can be used. One common application is asset tracking, where sensors are attached to assets such as vehicles or shipping containers to track their location and monitor their status. Another application is remote monitoring, where sensors are used to collect data from remote locations, such as oil pipelines or power plants, and transmit that data back to a central location for analysis.
Cellular IoT also has the potential to revolutionize industries such as agriculture, transportation, and healthcare. In agriculture, sensors can be used to monitor soil moisture, temperature, and other factors to optimize crop production. In transportation, sensors can be used to track the location and status of vehicles, as well as to monitor traffic patterns and optimize routes. In healthcare, sensors can be used to monitor the vital signs of patients and alert healthcare providers if there are any issues.
In conclusion, Cellular IoT is a valuable technology for connecting IoT devices to the internet. It is particularly useful for mobile devices and devices located in hard-to-reach locations. However, it is important to consider the cost of data, battery life, and security when using cellular networks for IoT.